Using a rotating PSF is much more light efficient, and robust to noise than past approaches based on spatial-multiplexing optics. In short, while other approaches rely on capturing just a subset of the available light, our system captures all of the available light because the entire sensor is always exposed. In addition, because the signal from different times is intermixed together on the sensor, the effect of read noise is minimized. This makes our approach effective in low-light scenarios, as shown by the below simulated examples

For the scenes on this webpage, we simulated the resultant images from a scene where the intensity of the
brightest scene point was set to some *f* of the saturation point of the sensor. The energy of this
point is then distributed over the sensor by its point-spread function.

*f* = 0.03125

Rotating PSF: λ_{sparsity}=1e-5, λ_{dx}=λ_{dy}=1e-3,
λ_{dt}=1e-3

Rolling shutter + diffuser (64 row exposure): λ_{sparsity}=0,
λ_{dx}=λ_{dy}=1e1, λ_{dt}=1e-2

ROI + grating (16 row ROI): λ_{sparsity}=0,
λ_{dx}=λ_{dy}=1e-2, λ_{dt}=1e-3

**Observe that our method (first row right) reconstructs the
moving "test" significantly better than prior work under noisy conditions.**

*f* = 0.03125

Rotating PSF: λ_{sparsity}=1e-3, λ_{dx}=λ_{dy}=2e-3,
λ_{dt}=2e-3

Rolling shutter + diffuser (64 row exposure): λ_{sparsity}=0,
λ_{dx}=λ_{dy}=1e1, λ_{dt}=1e-1

ROI + grating (16 row ROI): λ_{sparsity}=0,
λ_{dx}=λ_{dy}=1e-2, λ_{dt}=1e-2

**Again, our method (first row right) recovers this scene with
more intensity variation much better than prior work.**

*f* = 8

Rotating PSF: λ_{sparsity}=1e-7, λ_{dx}=λ_{dy}=0,
λ_{dt}=0

Rolling shutter + diffuser (64 row exposure): λ_{sparsity}=1e-7,
λ_{dx}=λ_{dy}=0, λ_{dt}=0

ROI + grating (16 row ROI): λ_{sparsity}=1e-3,
λ_{dx}=λ_{dy}=0, λ_{dt}=0

**Our method (first row right) can resolve the fast flickering
of a simulated LED, while past methods fail due to their poor light efficiency.**